Media optimisation can be achieved through several techniques informed by analytics at each stage of fermentation. Primarily, optimisation involves quantifying a number of parameters including temperature, oxygen level, pH, osmolarity, nutrient concentrations (these including sources of carbon, nitrogen, and various minerals), nucleotide and amino acid sources, and the use of growth agents and protective factors if appropriate. These parameters must be optimised in a manner that is conducive to scalability of media preparation. Some protein products may require, or benefit from, the implementation of inducible promotors for expression, in which case the induction strategy, including the timing, method of addition, and concentration) must be considered. Furthermore, it is vital to monitor and minimise contaminant levels with appropriate strategies for contaminant control. The application of analytics throughout fermentation can inform media characterisation and ensure batch-to-batch consistency. Phenotypeca’s approach of breeding for optimising diversity and subsequent QTL analysis has a proven record of improving titre, reducing undesired side products, improving fermentation and purification processes, leading to an overall cost of good for a premium product of high quality and commercially viable net yields.